Natural factors: The natural factors that cause soil erosion includes volcanic eruptions, changes in rainfall pattern, earthquakes, topographic changes, wind and glacier movements. Natural factors of soil erosion (like rainfall, wind, topography, etc.) are further increased by human activities.
Human activities: Soil pollution is further increased by human activities. Some of the human activities that causes land or soil pollution includes the following:
- The main factors of land pollution are increasing rate of soil erosion caused due to deforestation.
- In most of the developing countries increasing rate of soil erosion due to deforestation and faulty agricultural practices has degraded land to a large scale because the fertile top soil has been washed out.
- The excreta of birds, animals and humans are source of soil pollution by biological agents. Sewage used as manure causes soil pollution.
- Acid rains increase the acidity of soils that is injurious to plant growth. It is caused by the presence of pollutants in the environment. The major causes of acid rains include human activities such as burning of fossil fuels, and introduction of harmful gases.
- The toxic chemicals in the form of solid and liquid wastes that are disposed by industries and factories is the major source for soil pollution.
- The nuclear power plants are responsible for producing radioactive wastes. These are harmful for the soil.
Harmful effects of land pollution
The following are the harmful effects of land pollution:
- Land pollution results in substantial decrease in soil fertility and agricultural production.
- Chemical pollutants in the form of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, insecticides and herbicides cause various diseases and several deaths.
- Those bacteria which are transmitted to human-beings from soil infect causes dysentery, cholera, tuberculosis, typhoid and paratyphoid fever, etc.
- The decomposition of various waste materials causes harmful gases and bad smell.
- Clogging of micro-holes of the soil by particles in the sewage destroy the soil micro-organisms.
Land pollution is one of the main causes of air and water pollution.
India, Important, Contact Us, and Rahul Kakkar. “What Are The Causes And Effects Of Land Pollution? – Important India”. Important India. N.p., 2017. Web. 13 Mar. 2017.